Logic Model

Infection Control

Berríos-Torres SI, Umscheid CA, Bratzler DW, Leas B, Stone EC, Kelz RR, Reinke CE, Morgan S, Solomkin JS, Mazuski JE, Dellinger EP. Centers for disease control and prevention guideline for the prevention of surgical site infection, 2017. JA sur. 2017;152(8):784-91.

The cost of treating surgical site infections and the number of surgical procedures is increasing. These are associated with complex comorbidities. This paper provides not only a new but also updated evidence-based recommendations for preventing surgical site infections. It used the grading of recommendations, Assessment, development, and evaluation (GRADE) technique to assess the strength of recommendation and the quality of evidence and to provide the relationship between the two. The guideline is intended to provide an updated and a shred of new evidence based recommendations for preventing surgical site infections and incorporate it into quality improvement programs with the view to improve patient safety. The paper explains the proper ways to carry out various surgical operations such as cesarean procedures, skin preparation, surgical incision, and other surgical operations.

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Tacconelli E, Cataldo MA, Dancer SJ, De Angelis G, Falcone M, Frank U, Kahlmeter G, Pan A, Petrosillo N, Rodríguez‐Baño J, Singh N. ESCMID guidelines for the management of the infection control measures to reduce transmission of multidrug‐resistant Gram‐negative bacteria in hospitalized patients. Clin Mic Inf. 2014; 20:1-55.

These guidelines are provided to enable the management of the infection control measures to minimize the transmission of multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria in hospitalized patients. The corresponding author E. Tacconelli, is the in the division of infectious diseases in the department of internal medicine at the Tubingen University Hospital in Germany. The paper asserts that multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria cause healthcare infections which are known to be the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the whole world. The guidelines have been produced after a thorough review of other published studies on infection control. It provides evidence-based guidelines which are defined in accordance with the GRADE approach, describing the level of strength for and evidence for each and every recommendation.

Miller CH, Palenik CJ. Infection Control and Management of Hazardous Materials for the Dental Team5: Infection Control and Management of Hazardous Materials for the Dental Team. Els H S; 2014.

This is a book that can be used by both undergraduates and graduates in infection control and management of harmful materials for the dental team. The book covers various areas of infection control such as development of infectious diseases, emerging infectious diseases, the microbial world, rationale and regulation of infection control, immunization, hand hygiene, greener control, concerns, OSHA inspection, cross-contamination between work and home, waste management, preventing sharps injuries, aseptic techniques, personal protective equipment, oral and respiratory diseases, and laboratory and radiographic asepsis. The book explores the management of all the hazardous equipment for the dental team with the view to manage and control infections which might result from bad use of the equipment. It begins with the microbial world, explaining the characteristics of microorganisms with the view to understand infections and hence find out how to control them.

Rosenthal VD, Maki DG, Mehta Y, Leblebicioglu H, Memish ZA, Al-Mousa HH, Balkhy H, Hu B, Alvarez-Moreno C, Medeiros EA, Apisarnthanarak A. International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortiu (INICC) report, data summary of 43 countries for 2007-2012. Dev-Assoc mod. Ame joul inf cont. 2014;42(9):942-56.

This is a report on infection control carried out by an international Nosocomial Consortium (INICC). The reports span between January 2007 to December 2012. The report represents 43 countries where 503 intensive care units were tested. The report details nosocomial infection, central line bloodstream associated infection, ventilator-associated pneumonia, urinary tract infection, details of resistance of Pseudomonas and their relationships with amikacin, imipenem, and the isolation of pneumoniae to ceftazidime. The reports detail comparison of these infections in the intensive care units and the INICC. Furthermore, the report details the disparities of these infections in developed and developing countries. The report explains the challenges faced in overcoming these infections in limited resources countries or low-income countries. The report details the ways to curb the infections in developed countries too.

Saiman L, Siegel JD, LiPuma JJ, Brown RF, Bryson EA, Chambers MJ, Downer VS, Fliege J, Hazle LA, Jain M, Marshall BC. Infection prevention and control guideline for cystic fibrosis: 2013 update. Infe Cont & Hosp Epide. 2014 ;35(S1):s1-67.

This is a guideline for control and prevention of infection for Cystic Fibrosis. It is a 2013 update of the original 2003 version. The guideline is updated following the changes that occurred between 2003 and 2013 which include new knowledge and new challenges with the increased population. The guidelines explain the need to integrate all the relevant recommendations from the 2003 evidence-based guidelines, and the emerging pathogens that have emerged in our expanded population. The guidelines explain the various control measures for infections majorly the Cystic Fibrosis infection. The paper also provides guidelines for the prevention of various infections resulting from pathogens. The pathogens include influenza and the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus. It has also included the implementation of science and its benefits, adherence monitoring, and principles of feedback.

Tängdén T, Giske CG. Global dissemination of extensively drug‐resistant carbapenemase‐producing E nterobacteriaceae: clinical perspectives on detection, treatment and infection control. Intern Med. 2015;277(5):501-12.

This journal describes the dissemination, clinical prevention, treatment and infection control of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) The paper explains the prevalence of carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacilli, its worldwide rise, its resistance, and its possibility of reaching to a level of community untreatable infection. The paper describes the bacterial that carry these resistances, the determinants of resistance and treatment options. It describes the difficulty experienced in detecting carbapenemase-producing-Enterobacteriaceae. It also explains the current clinical evidence for treatment and the issues associated with them such as insufficient information on treatment options. The paper also explains regimes such as colistin, carbapenems, aminoglycosides, and finally fosfomycin. The paper further describes strict infection control measures and management information for supporting patients infected with CPE.

Dingle KE, Didelot X, Quan TP, Eyre DW, Stoesser N, Golubchik T, Harding RM, Wilson DJ, Griffiths D, Vaughan A, Finney JM. Effects of control interventions on Clostridium difficile infection in England: an observational study. Lant Infect Dise. 2017;17(4):411-21.

This paper explains the challenge experienced in the control of Clostridium difficile infections. It describes the role of the national policy in the check of the infections. It also illustrates the effects of increasing or reducing antibiotic on the prevalence of the diseases. The paper further describes the circumstances that reduced the infections such us the general improvement in infection control hospitals. It explains in details the importance of restricting antibiotics such as fluoroquinolone on the prevalence of the diseases. The paper uses England as a case study describing the challenges experienced in the control of the infections. The document uses both regional and national data to explain the challenges faced in solving the quest to control the diseases.

Cao-Lormeau VM, Blake A, Mons S, Lastère S, Roche C, Vanhomwegen J, Dub T, Baudouin L, Teissier A, Larre P, Vial AL. Guillain-Barré Syndrome outbreak associated with Zika virus infection in French Polynesia: a case-control study. Lan. 2016 ;387(10027):1531-9.

The paper is a control case study, describing the outbreak of Zika virus in France. The document describes the link between the Zika virus and the Guillain-Barre’ syndrome which occurred during the same time. the paper describes the role of Zika virus in the development of Guillain-Barre’ syndrome. The document provides evidence for the cause of Guillain-Barre’ syndrome which is the Zika virus infection. Furthermore, the paper describes the integrative biology of the various emerging infectious diseases. The document explains the neutralizing antibodies against the virus, transient illness associated with the infection, the rapid evolution of diseases, glycolipid, respiratory problems and assistance, glycoarray, history of past dengue virus, and acute motor neuropathy. The document describes the major cause of the Zuka virus in individuals most of which are related to the infections mentioned above.

De Angelis G, Cataldo MA, De Waure C, Venturiello S, La Torre G, Cauda R, Carmeli Y, Tacconelli E. Infection control and prevention measures to reduce the spread of vancomycin-resistant enterococci in hospitalized patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Anti Chem. 2014 ;69(5):1185-92.

This paper describes Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) and the issues associated with it. The document further explains the measures for effective control and prevention that may reduce the spread of VRE. The paper described the estimated pooled risk ratio. The document illustrates the many factors that reduce the prevalence of VRE such as the implementation of hand hygiene and contact precautions. Furthermore, the paper describes the potency of hand hygiene and contact precaution on reducing the spread of VRE. The document failed to describe surveillance screening, cleaning of the environment and interventions for antibiotic formulary. Furthermore, the paper notes that it did not study the effectiveness of isolation of staff and patients. The document explains the issues associated with the available measures to treat the spread of VRP in hospitals.

Brusaferro S, Arnoldo L, Cattani G, Fabbro E, Cookson B, Gallagher R, Hartemann P, Holt J, Kalenic S, Popp W, Privitera G. Harmonizing and supporting infection control training in Europe. Hosp Inf. 2015 ;89(4):351-6.

This paper explains the support and harmonization of infection control. It explains healthcare-associated infections (HCAI), the safety of patients, and bringing together related programs and policies. The paper explains the needs for training in infection control. It also describes healthcare workers training for infection control. The document demonstrates HCAI prevention and commitment. It illustrates several barriers to the harmonization of training in infection control and the promotion of the training. The paper explains the qualification requirement for nurses, the resources available, and the sustainability of the programs in the healthcare systems. It illustrates the core competencies for control of infection and general hygiene in the hospitals and a methodology that is agreed upon by nations for collective control of disease in the larger region of Europe.

Wood AM, Moss C, Keenan A, Reed MR, Leaper DJ. Infection control hazards associated with the use of forced-air warming in operating theatres. Hosp Inf. 2014 ;88(3):132-40.

This journal describes the infections control hazards associated with the use of forced-air warming in operating theatres. It is a review representing both clinical and experimental research to prevent the occurrence of hypothermia which might result from the infections. The study describes the use of ultra-clean ventilation. It explains all the synergies ultra-clean ventilation has on various types of patient warming. Furthermore, the paper describes an increase in risks related to surgical site infections. The document describes the effects of forced air warming on ultra-clean air ventilation and the increased risk of surgical site infection. It illustrates the need for surgeons to use alternative patient warming systems especially in places where the operative field must not be contaminated.

Parani M, Lokhande G, Singh A, Gaharwar AK. Engineered nanomaterials for infection control and healing acute and chronic wounds. ACS. 2016 ;8(16):10049-69.

This paper describes the use of engineered nanomaterials in the treatment of wounds without infections. The document illustrates the use of nanomaterials for disease control and the treatment of chronic injuries. The paper describes in details nanoengineered biomaterials. It explains the increase in the use of nanoengineered biomaterials in the check of disease and in accelerating the healing of wounds. It describes the various developments that are shaping the use of nanoengineering in the field of medicine and control of infection. It further outlines the potential applications of nanomaterials in the healing of wounds. It describes the various nanomaterials developed recently for the control of diseases. The paper describes the current state of engineered nanomaterials for wound healing and the future perspective of using nanomaterials in effection control.

Rand KH, Tremblay EE, Hoidal M, Fisher LB, Grau KR, Karst SM. Multiplex gastrointestinal pathogen panels: implications for infection control. Diagn microb. 2015;82(2):154-7.

This paper describes the implications for the control of infection resulting from gastrointestinal pathogens. The document describes the diseases resulting from diarrheal and their possible regulators for inpatient services. The paper describes the possibility of an inpatient having an infection resulting from diarrhea. The document describes the various causes of such disease to reach the patients. Furthermore, the paper describes possible ways of avoiding the spread of such an infection. It outlines possible ways to prevent the disease from spreading. The document describes all for the case of the acute care where a wide variety of factors can cause both infectious and noninfectious diarrhea. The paper recommends various techniques to be used with the aim of controlling and preventing the spread of the infections which include patient isolation and to reduce nosocomial transmission.

Khosravi A, Yáñez A, Price JG, Chow A, Merad M, Goodridge HS, Mazmanian SK. Gut microbiota promote hematopoiesis to control bacterial infection. Cell microbe. 2014;15(3):374-81.

The paper describes the control of bacterial infection. The document centers on the check on Gut Microbiota and its impact on disease-causing bacteria. It illustrates the influences of the commensal microbiota on the various immune cell. The paper describes the consequences of being germ-free. It explains the impacts of microbes on yolk sac and the development of the individual myeloid cell. The document illustrates the importance of microbiota in the resisting of bacterial infection. Furthermore, the paper describes the negative impacts of oral antibiotics on myelopoiesis and their general role in suppressing an individual’s immune system. The paper, therefore, explains the consequences of living without a germ such as the microbiota which is found to be useful in providing resistance to various infections.

Jeong SY, Kim OS, Lee JY. The status of healthcare-associated infection control among healthcare facilities in Korea. Dig Conv. 2014;12(5):353-66.

The paper describes the infection control and its status among the Korean healthcare facilities. The paper describes the various factors that contributed to the increase or the decrease in the cases of infection and these were found to include, the mean number of beds in the hospitals in relation to the populations, the presence of infection committee in the healthcare facilities, the number of infection control practitioners in the healthcare facility, the gender of the infection control practitioner, the level of education of the practitioners, their levels of experience, availability of necessary facilities, the number of health care providers with respect to the size of the hospital, the general organization of the health care facility, and availability of facilities such as computer programs, and negative pressure room.

Sopirala MM, Yahle-Dunbar L, Smyer J, Wellington L, Dickman J, Zikri N, Martin J, Kulich P, Taylor D, Mekhjian H, Nash M. Infection control link nurse program: an interdisciplinary approach in targeting health care-acquired infection. A j infe C. 2014 ;42(4):353-9.

This document describes infection control through the link nurse program. The paper describes link nurse program in details. It explains the role of nurse education and training in alleviating the spread of infections. It details the tasks of providing nurses with clearly defined goals in reducing the spread of infectious diseases. The document describes the importance of using various tools such as hand soap in minimizing the spread of infections. Furthermore, the paper emphasizes the importance of hand hygiene compliance in decreasing the spread of diseases. The document compares the changes that occur after a period of time while taking the time in which the interventions were set to be the baseline. The paper notes the impact of having defined goals in and continued education for nurses in reducing the spread of infections.

Halboub ES, Al-Maweri SA, Al-Jamaei AA, Tarakji B, Al-Soneidar WA. Knowledge, attitudes, and practice of infection control among dental students at Sana’a University, Yemen. intern oral H: JIOH. 2015;7(5):15.

This paper describes knowledge, practices, and attitudes on infection control for senior dental students procedures. The document describes the probability of a dental student to be vaccinated for hepatitis B and post-hepatitis B immunization serology test. The paper describes the importance of wearing gloves during a dental operation. It illustrates the percentage of dental students who wear gloves during a procedure. Furthermore, the document describes the importance of wearing face protection during a procedure and records down the number of dental students who wear eyewear face masks during a procedure. The document further describes the attitudes of students towards their work especially for the treatment of a patient with infectious disorders. The paper explained the need to improve knowledge attitude and practices as far as infection control is concerned for dental students.

Karkar A, Bouhaha BM, Dammang ML. Infection control in hemodialysis units: A quick access to essential elements. S J K DT. 2014;25(3):496.

This journal describes the control of infection in a hemodialysis unit. The document describes the impact of the disease in hospitalization rates and mortality. The paper describes the possible consequences of infection both HD patients and the dialysis staff. It illustrates the potential cause of infection in an HD unit. It explains the role of different international organizations in controlling the spread of infectious diseases in an HD unit. The document provides guidelines on improving hemodialysis units to alleviate infections. The paper outlines the guidelines that center on reducing the spread of disease to promote global outcome in the HD units. The paper facilitates access, increases awareness and encourage implementation among HD providers through viewing, extracting and comparing all the necessary guidelines and recommendations.

Osman MF, Askari R. Infection control in the intensive care unit. Surg Clin. 2014 ;94(6):1175-94.

This paper explains the importance of understanding and recognizing the adverse impacts of having infections in the intensive care unit (ICU). The article describes the overwhelming nature of the clinical, economic, and social expenses that patients incur in the hospitals. The study regards multiple ways to remove infections in intensive care units which include taking infection control measures, implement, and enforce them. The paper notes down various guidelines that have been developed by other researchers for the control of infection in intensive care units. The guidelines cover infection control and prevention committees, antimicrobial stewardship programs, assessments on a daily basis, identifying risk factors and minimizing them, and educating the staff. The paper finally notes down the advancement and the evolution of infection control in the ICU and its unlimited future possibilities.

Mitchell BG, Hall L, MacBeth D, Gardner A, Halton K. Hospital infection control units: staffing, costs, and priorities. AJIC. 2015;43(6):612-6.

This article describes the prevention and control of infection by professionals. It illustrates various relevant matters such as staffing levels, outcomes of patients, and the generally associated costs for limiting and controlling the disease. The paper describes hospital demographics, services of the infection control unit, infection prevention, control outputs, patient outcomes, and infection control priorities. The study provides further information concerning the number of bed in hospitals, staffing costs and the need to increase access to support for both public and private hospitals. The paper describes the disparities in private and public hospitals in controlling and managing infection. The article mentions further the advantage of enhanced information technology in the process of alleviating disease and hence in the process of ensuring quality health.

References

1. Berríos-Torres SI, Umscheid CA, Bratzler DW, Leas B, Stone EC, Kelz RR, Reinke CE, Morgan S, Solomkin JS, Mazuski JE, Dellinger EP. Centers for disease control and prevention guideline for the prevention of surgical site infection, 2017. JA sur. 2017;152(8):784-91.

2. Tacconelli E, Cataldo MA, Dancer SJ, De Angelis G, Falcone M, Frank U, Kahlmeter G, Pan A, Petrosillo N, Rodríguez‐Baño J, Singh N. ESCMID guidelines for the management of the infection control measures to reduce transmission of multidrug‐resistant Gram‐negative bacteria in hospitalized patients. Clin Mic Inf. 2014 ;20:1-55.

3. Miller CH, Palenik CJ. Infection Control and Management of Hazardous Materials for the Dental Team5: Infection Control and Management of Hazardous Materials for the Dental Team. Els H S; 2014.

4. Rosenthal VD, Maki DG, Mehta Y, Leblebicioglu H, Memish ZA, Al-Mousa HH, Balkhy H, Hu B, Alvarez-Moreno C, Medeiros EA, Apisarnthanarak A. International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortiu (INICC) report, data summary of 43 countries for 2007-2012. Dev-Assoc mod. Ame joul inf cont. 2014;42(9):942-56.

5. Saiman L, Siegel JD, LiPuma JJ, Brown RF, Bryson EA, Chambers MJ, Downer VS, Fliege J, Hazle LA, Jain M, Marshall BC. Infection prevention and control guideline for cystic fibrosis: 2013 update. Infe Cont & Hosp Epide. 2014 ;35(S1):s1-67.

6. Tängdén T, Giske CG. Global dissemination of extensively drug‐resistant carbapenemase‐producing E nterobacteriaceae: clinical perspectives on detection, treatment and infection control. Intern Med. 2015;277(5):501-12.

7. Dingle KE, Didelot X, Quan TP, Eyre DW, Stoesser N, Golubchik T, Harding RM, Wilson DJ, Griffiths D, Vaughan A, Finney JM. Effects of control interventions on Clostridium difficile infection in England: an observational study. Lant Infect Dise. 2017;17(4):411-21.

8. Cao-Lormeau VM, Blake A, Mons S, Lastère S, Roche C, Vanhomwegen J, Dub T, Baudouin L, Teissier A, Larre P, Vial AL. Guillain-Barré Syndrome outbreak associated with Zika virus infection in French Polynesia: a case-control study. Lan. 2016 ;387(10027):1531-9.

9. De Angelis G, Cataldo MA, De Waure C, Venturiello S, La Torre G, Cauda R, Carmeli Y, Tacconelli E. Infection control and prevention measures to reduce the spread of vancomycin-resistant enterococci in hospitalized patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Anti Chem. 2014 ;69(5):1185-92.

10. Brusaferro S, Arnoldo L, Cattani G, Fabbro E, Cookson B, Gallagher R, Hartemann P, Holt J, Kalenic S, Popp W, Privitera G. Harmonizing and supporting infection control training in Europe. Hosp Inf. 2015 ;89(4):351-6.

11. Wood AM, Moss C, Keenan A, Reed MR, Leaper DJ. Infection control hazards associated with the use of forced-air warming in operating theatres. Hosp Inf. 2014 ;88(3):132-40.

12. Parani M, Lokhande G, Singh A, Gaharwar AK. Engineered nanomaterials for infection control and healing acute and chronic wounds. ACS . 2016 ;8(16):10049-69.

13. Rand KH, Tremblay EE, Hoidal M, Fisher LB, Grau KR, Karst SM. Multiplex gastrointestinal pathogen panels: implications for infection control. Diagn microb. 2015;82(2):154-7.

14. Khosravi A, Yáñez A, Price JG, Chow A, Merad M, Goodridge HS, Mazmanian SK. Gut microbiota promote hematopoiesis to control bacterial infection. Cell microbe. 2014;15(3):374-81.

15. Jeong SY, Kim OS, Lee JY. The status of healthcare-associated infection control among healthcare facilities in Korea. Dig Conv. 2014;12(5):353-66.

16. Sopirala MM, Yahle-Dunbar L, Smyer J, Wellington L, Dickman J, Zikri N, Martin J, Kulich P, Taylor D, Mekhjian H, Nash M. Infection control link nurse program: an interdisciplinary approach in targeting health care-acquired infection. A j infe C. 2014 ;42(4):353-9.

17. Halboub ES, Al-Maweri SA, Al-Jamaei AA, Tarakji B, Al-Soneidar WA. Knowledge, attitudes, and practice of infection control among dental students at Sana’a University, Yemen. intern oral H: JIOH. 2015;7(5):15.

18. Karkar A, Bouhaha BM, Dammang ML. Infection control in hemodialysis units: A quick access to essential elements. S J K DT. 2014;25(3):496.

19. Osman MF, Askari R. Infection control in the intensive care unit. Surg Clin. 2014 ;94(6):1175-94.

20. Mitchell BG, Hall L, MacBeth D, Gardner A, Halton K. Hospital infection control units: staffing, costs, and priorities. AJIC. 2015;43(6):612-6.

 

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