Which of the following is the best sociological definition of income? An individual’s yearly salary

PART 1
Question 1
Patterned social arrangements that have an enabling or constraining effect on agency are referred to as:
Structure
Institutions
Free will
Socialization
Question 2
_____ is considered the first female sociologist and argued that injustices such as slavery and women’s inequality stunted a society’s moral development.
Auguste Comte
Émile Durkheim
Karl Marx
Harriet Martineau
Question 3
Formal organizations characterized by written rules, hierarchical authority, and a paid staff, intended to promote organizational efficiency, are referred to as:
Institutions
Universities
Bureaucracies
Government
Question 4
The relationship between agency and structure is _____, as ______.
one-sided, agency influences structure
one-sided, structure enables or constrains agency
reciprocal, they both have an effect on one another
nonexistent, there is no relationship between the two
Question 5
Accepted social behaviors and beliefs are referred to as:
Norms
Culture
Social status
Values
Question 6
The bonds that unite the members of a social group is referred to as:
Culture
Social solidarity
Norms
Societal unity
Question 7
_____ believed that nearly all known societies are characterized by some system of division by economic class, which results in conflict as classes compete for wealth, power, and resources.
Auguste Comte
Émile Durkheim
Karl Marx
Harriet Martineau
Question 8
The ability to evaluate claims about truth by using reason and evidence is referred to as:
Critical thinking
Sociological imagination
Scientific reasoning
Logical thought
Question 9
The ability of individuals and groups to exercise free will and to make social change is referred to as:
Structure
Agency
Free choice
Individualism
Question 10
A researcher finds that as income increases, square footage of respondent’s home also increases. This is an example of:
Positive correlation
Positive causation
Negative correlation
Increasatory relationship
Question 11
A variable is defined as:
The description of a relationship
A phenomena that is constantly changing
A term used to summarize a set of phenomena
A concept that can take on two or more possible values
Question 12
A _____ relationship is one in which one variable is the cause of another variable.
Correlated
Causal
Positive
Statistical
Question 13
The degree to which two or more variables are associated with one another is referred to as:
Causation
Statistical relationship
Correlation
Frequency
Question 14
_____ reasoning starts from specific data and tries to identify larger patterns from which to derive more general theories.
Logical
Inductive
Ground-level
Deductive
Question 15
A researcher finds that as years spent driving increases, the number of accidents decreases. This is an example of:
Negative causation
Negative correlation
Positive correlation
Decreasing relationship
Question 16
The term used to summarize a set of phenomena is:
Definition
Concept
Operationalization
Pattern
Question 17
The repetition of a previous study using a different sample or population to verify or refute the original findings is referred to as:
Verification
Replication
Validation
Reliability
Question 18
A culture that exists together with a dominant culture but differs from it in some important respects is referred to as:
Ethnicity
Subculture
Counterculture
Subgroup
Question 19
The ability of a local culture to absorb outside influences that fit in and enrich their culture while resisting those that are alien is known as:
Staying power
Grobalization
Glocalization
Globalization
Question 20
The beliefs, norms, behaviors, and products common to the members of a particular group are referred to as:
Ethnicity
Culture
Society
Class
Question 21
Powerful mores, the violation of which is considered serious and even unthinkable, are referred to as:
Criminal laws
Commandments
Taboos
Fundamental values
Question 22
Cultural representations of social realities are referred to as:
Images
Symbols
Trademarks
Ethnographies
Question 23
The worldview whereby we judge other cultures by the standards of our own is referred to as:
Patriotism
Nationalism
Ethnocentrism
Multiculturalism
Question 24
Particular ideas that people accept as true are referred to as:
Religion
Cultural norms
Values
Beliefs
Question 25
Abstract and general standards in society that define ideal principles such as right and wrong are referred to as:
Laws
Public opinions
Religious beliefs
Values

PART 2
Question 1
What is the sociological definition of significant others?
Specific people important in a child’s life who have the greatest impact on their self-evaluation
Relationships characterized by intense emotional ties, face-to-face interaction, intimacy, and a strong, enduring sense of commitment
Those whose opinions provide the basis for how we judge our own attitudes or behaviors
People of similar age and social standing that influence our norms and values
Question 2
Adopting the behavior or standards of a group you emulate or hope to join is referred to as:
Conformity
Clique socialization
Anticipatory socialization
Pro-active conformity
Question 3
Which of the following behaviors is most likely the result of family socialization?
Texting and holding a face-to-face conversation at the same time
Standing during the playing of the national anthem
Arriving to an important appointment 15 minutes early
Performing specific household chores
Question 4
Psychoanalysis, the psychological perspective that emphasizes the complex reasoning processes of the conscious and unconscious mind, is associated with which major theorist?
George Herbert Mead
Sigmund Freud
Charles H. Cooley
Jean Piaget
Question 5
How would sociologists define social learning?
The process by which people learn the culture of their society
The way people adapt their behavior in response to social rewards and punishments
The way people are socialized to act in a given situation
The process by which people learn norms, what is acceptable and unacceptable behavior
Question 6
The unspoken classroom socialization to the norms, values, and roles of a culture that school provides is referred to as:
Textbook socialization
Socialization curriculum
Curriculum of inequality
Hidden curriculum
Question 7
_____ refers to when members of a group ignore anything that goes against the group consensus.
Discompromise effect
Group cohesion
Groupthink
Consent partiality
Question 8
Power exercised over those who recognize it as deserved or earned is referred to as:
Authentic authority
Electoral power
Personal power
Legitimate authority
Question 9
Which of the following is an example of a secondary group?
Two close friends who practice tennis together
A father who plays catch with his son
A college basketball team
A family who watches football together every Sunday
Question 10
The simplest group, consisting of two persons, is referred to as:
Pair
Dyad
Duo
Primary relationship
Question 11
The ability of groups to exclude outsiders participating in the group or enjoying group resources is referred to as:
Social exclusion
Social closure
Factioning
Clique capacity
Question 12
Large, impersonal groups with minimal emotional and intimate ties are referred to as:
Secondary groups
Principal groups
Reference groups
Remandiary groups
Question 13
The act of having multiple wives is referred to as:
Monogamy
Mormonism
Polygamy
Polyandry
Question 14
The argument that deviant behavior is little more than a product of the labels people attach to certain types of behavior is referred to as:
Catalogue theory
Association theory
Labeling theory
Criminal label theory
Question 15
An act defined in the law as punishable by fines, imprisonment or both is referred to as:
Deviance
Law-breaking
Crime
Criminality
Question 16
In the United States, which of the following would not be considered to be a normative cultural goal that people strive for?
Earning economic success
Raising and supporting a family
Gaining recognition or fame
Maintaining a steady routine, day-to-day
Question 17
A crime considered so heinous that it is punishable by death is referred to as:
Capital offense
Death penalty crime
Eye-for-an-eye offense
Felony crime.
Question 18
The idea that what is labeled deviant or criminal—and therefore who gets punished—is determined by the interests of the dominant class is referred to as:
Class-dominant theory
Class conflict theory
Capitalist culture theory
Marxist theory
Question 19
According to Karl Marx, the _____ own the means of production, which they use to exploit the labor of the _____.
proletariat, bourgeoisie
industrialists, masses
capitalist class, worker class
bourgeoisie, proletariat
Question 20
The value of everything a person owns minus the value of everything he or she owes is referred to as:
Wealth
Income
Net capital
Value of assets
Question 21
A person’s economic position in society, based on differences in income, wealth, and occupation, is referred to as:
Caste
Socioeconomic category
Class
Social classification
Question 22
The upward or downward status movement of individuals or groups over time is referred to as:
Social progression
Cultural promotion
Social mobility
Socioeconomic stasis
Question 23
Which of the following is the best sociological definition of income?
An individual’s yearly salary
Wages, tips, and other compensation
The amount of money a person or household earns in a given period of time
The value of everything a person owns, minus the value of everything he or she owes
Question 24
Areas that lack places that sell competitively priced, healthy, and fresh food are referred to as:
Food wastelands
Grocery deserts
Food deserts
Food insecure regions
Question 25
The systematic ranking of different groups of people in a hierarchy of inequality is referred to as:
Social stratification
Social inequality
Class differences
Class status

 

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